The worst thing in a mothers life is knowing that you are the cause of your child’s misfortune and there was something you would have done to prevent the misfortune.
For that reason, women have been warned about the effects and risks of smoking while pregnant for years, with their offspring at risk of heart defects and other health problems.
It has also been established that mothers who smoke during pregnancy could be harming their daughters’ fertility in years to come, research suggests.
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have now discovered the damage is even more far reaching than thought – and could even put a woman’s chance of having grandchildren at risk.
Their findings, published last night in the FASEB science journal, are the first to suggest that girls born to women who smoked during pregnancy may struggle to have children of her own.
Experiments on rats during pregnancy found that oxygen deprivation – also known as hypoxia – effectively recreating what smokers do to their lungs, resulted in female mouse pups born with fewer ovarian follicles.
The researchers say that rats are a useful model for studying human pregnancy because their reproductive biology shares many of the same features.
They believe girls born to women who smoked during pregnancy will see a similar reduction in ovarian function, which they say could result in loss of fertility and earlier menopause.
Women are born with fixed numbers of follicles, each with the potential of developing into an egg. In humans, women usually expend all their eggs around the age of 50, at which point they start the menopause.
Dr Catherine Aiken, from the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at the University of Cambridge, said: “It’s as if low levels of oxygen caused the female’s ovarian tissue to age faster.
“Biologically, the tissue appears older and the female would run out of eggs – in other words, become infertile – at a younger age.”
The doctor said that pregnancy conditions such as pre-eclampsia, which also result in lower oxygen levels during pregnancy, could have similar results.